There are two different legal texts on this topic, so the answer is not enumera ted clearly.
One of these laws (SGB V) says the following:
You can stay at home for up to 10 days a year to take care of your sick child. These ten days apply to each parent per child. Single parents can, accordingly, stay at home for 20 days per child. If you have more than two children, you can stay at home per parent for a maximum of 25 days to care for your sick children. However, this regulation only applies if:
- your child is younger than 12 years or needs special help because of a disability,
- you can present a medical certificate stating that your child needs care during his illness,
- and there is no other person in your household who can take care of your child.
IMPORTANT: Due to the corona pandemic, the number of days you can stay at home to care for your child has been increased for the year 2021. You can find more information in our chapter "Coronavirus - Work".
The other law (BGB) does not specify any specific figures or any further conditions. So if you have to stay at home to look after a child over 12, you may be able to refer to Section 616 of the German Civil Code (BGB).