Asylum seekers and individuals with "Duldung" who have been in Germany for less than 15 months are only entitled to emergency healthcare. This means that they are only medically treated in cases of acute illnesses. The costs of treatment for chronic diseases are often not taken over by the state. Pregnant women are considered as exceptions- they can benefit from all medical services necessary during pregnancy and childbirth in Germany. In addition, everyone, including asylum seekers, has the possibility to get vaccinated in Germany.
If you have been in Germany for less than 15 months, you will usually need to apply for a voucher ("Krankenschein") from the competent authority before each visit to the doctor. This means that you either receive a few vouchers from your initial reception centre (or the staff member responsible for you at the Social Welfare Office) every three months, or each time you need to see a doctor, you must first pick up a voucher from them. Please keep in mind that these vouchers are only valid for three months. At the end of these three months, you will have to obtain new vouchers to visit a doctor.
Instead of "Krankenschein" (which can be bureaucratically complicated to issue) some federal states and cities distribute so-called Health Cards for asylum seekers and individuals with a "Duldung" (i.e. "Gesundheitkarten an Asylbewerber un Geduldete"). Holding such a card means you can go directly to the doctor without first stopping by the authorities. But here, too, you are only entitled to emergency treatments. The main advantage of the Health Card is that it decreases the amount of bureaucratic work necessary for all concerned.
You usually can collect the medicines that the doctor prescribes for you from any pharmacy. In principle, you do not have to pay for your medications- you just need to hand in your prescription and receive the articles- the pharmacy will be reimbursed by the Social Welfare Office. You can search for a pharmacy nearby on www.aponet.de.