You can obtain a passport for fugitives ("Blue Pass") if your right to asylum or refugee status has been recognised in Germany. According to Article 28 of the Geneva Convention on Refugees, you are, in principle, entitled to a travel document. Only individuals who, for instance, have been convicted of membership of a terrorist organisation are not entitled to a travel document.
Those entitled to subsidiary protection or a national deportation ban cannot obtain a travel document for refugees. If that is the case you must ask for a passport at your home country's embassy. If the embassy does not issue you a passport, you can apply for a Travel Permit for Foreigners („Reiseausweis für Ausländer“) at the relevant Immigration Office („Ausländerbehörde”). You can learn more about it in our chapter “Traveling Abroad”.
Please note: If you have been granted subsidiary protection or have a residence permit due to a national deportation ban and are appealing BAMF's decision, you must not visit your home country's embassy. If you do so, the BAMF assumes that you are not being persecuted in your home country.